, Pollination by water, hydrophily, uses water to transport pollen, sometimes as whole anthers; these can travel across the surface of the water to carry dry pollen from one flower to another. This may be achieved through the use of pollination bags. Spore mother cells in the microsporangia divide by meiosis to form haploid microspores that develop further by two mitotic divisions into immature male gametophytes (pollen grains). Its two gametes travel down the tube to where the gametophyte(s) containing the female gametes are held within the carpel. The pollen enters a pollen chamber close to the nucellus, and there it may wait for a year before it germinates and forms a pollen tube that grows through the wall of the megasporangium (=nucellus) where fertilisation takes place. Plants adapted to use bats or moths as pollinators typically have white petals, strong scent and flower at night, whereas plants that use birds as pollinators tend to produce copious nectar and have red petals. Pollination is necessary for plants to continue their populations and 3/4 of the plant species that contribute to the world's food supply are plants that require pollinators. However, the insecticides are able to make its way throughout the plant, which includes the pollen and nectar. , While there are 200,000 - 350,000 different species of animals that help pollination, bees are responsible for majority of the pollination for consumed crops, providing between $235 and $577 US billion of benefits to global food production. For example, a tree may flower sooner than usual, while the pollinator may reproduce later in the year and therefore the two species no longer coincide in time. 2015; 21:3267–3277. Sample papers, board papers and exam tips. The surviving one develops as a megaspore and divides repeatedly to form an immature female gametophyte (egg sac).  However, a recent study published in Oxford Academic's Journal of Economic Entomology found that once the costs for maintaining bees specifically for almond pollination, including overwintering, summer management, and the replacement dying bees are considered, almond pollination is barely or not profitable for average beekeepers. This crisis is affecting the production of crops, and the relating costs, due to a decrease in pollination processes. Besides birds and bats which are the most frequent visitors, these include monkeys, lemurs, squirrels, rodents and possums.  Pollution and pesticides are detrimental to the health of the bees and their colonies as the bees' ability to pollinate and return to their colonies are great greatly compromised. , Some flowers have specialized mechanisms to trap pollinators to increase effectiveness. The impact of pollination varies by crop. , The most essential staple food crops on the planet, like wheat, maize, rice, soybeans and sorghum are wind pollinated or self pollinating.  Due to their role of pollination in crop production, commercial honeybees are considered to be livestock by the US Department of Agriculture. The study of pollination by insects is known as anthecology.  Pollination by animals aids in the genetic variability and diversity within plants because it allows for out-crossing instead for self-crossing. The female flower, also floating, has its stigma protected from the water, while its sepals are slightly depressed into the water, allowing the male flowers to tumble in. The ecological and financial importance of natural pollination by insects to agricultural crops, improving their quality and quantity, becomes more and more appreciated and has given rise to new financial opportunities.  This can be beneficial for the pollinators, as flower constancy prevents the loss of pollen during interspecific flights and pollinators from clogging stigmas with pollen of other flower species. , Marathi मराठी Each February, around 60% of the all bee colonies in the US are moved to California's Central Valley.. , Maithili মৈথিলী The association between beetles and angiosperms during the early Cretaceous period led to parallel radiations of angiosperms and insects into the late Cretaceous. , Besides the imbalance of the ecosystem caused by the decline in pollinators, it may jeopardise food security. Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species, Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower, Wind, insects, water, animals, etc. Spatial disturbances occur when two species that would normally share the same distribution, now respond different to climate change and are shifting to different regions. This probably arose from insect pollination, most likely due to changes in the environment or the availability of pollinators. These undergo mitosis to form male gametophytes, each of which contains two haploid cells. Details of the process vary according to the division of gymnosperms in question. This structure was found to be similar in very different ecosystems on different continents, consisting of entirely different species.  The decrease in populations of the honey bee have been attributed to pesticides, genetically modified crops, fragmentation, parasites and diseases that have been introduced. More than that, it permits plants to escape environments that have changed and have become difficult to reside in. As of 2016, 41% of an average US beekeeper's revenue comes from providing such pollination service to farmers, making it the biggest proportion of their income, with the rest coming from sales of honey, beeswax, government subsidy, etc. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain (gametophyte) has landed on the stigma, it germinates and develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary. 2005; 272:2561–2569, American Institute of Biological Sciences, "Wind of change: new insights on the ecology and evolution of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants", "Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid", "Types of Pollination, Pollinators and Terminology", "First ever record of insect pollination from 100 million years ago", "Reproductive Biology and Controlled Pollination of Eucalyptus", "Pollination and seed dispersal by lizards", "Arthropod fauna of mammal-pollinated Protea humiflora: ants as an attractant for insectivore pollinators?
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